Figure 2: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces hematopoietic stem cell mobilization by activating inflammasome and complement systems. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor triggers monocytes and granulocytes to release eATP, which binds P2X4 or P2X7 on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells or innate immune cells to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Interleukin-1β, interleukin-18, and danger-associated molecular patterns are released through the pores formed by GSDMD. Danger-associated molecular patterns activate complement C5, releasing S1P from mature erythrocytes. Interleukin-1β, interleukin-18, and S1P together promote hematopoietic stem cell mobilization.