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Rodent models of senile normal-pressure hydrocephalus

1 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
2 Departments of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University; Department of Neurosurgery, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Guo-Fang Tseng,
Department of Anatomy, Tzu Chi University, 701, Zhongyang Road, Section 3, Hualien
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_120_22

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its drainage are crucial in clearing metabolic waste and maintaining the microenvironment of the central nervous system for proper functioning. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a serious neurological disorder of the elderly with obstruction of CSF flow outside the cerebral ventricles, causing ventriculomegaly. The stasis of CSF in NPH compromises brain functioning. Although treatable, often with shunt implantation for drainage, the outcome depends highly on early diagnosis, which, however, is challenging. The initial symptoms of NPH are hard to be aware of and the complete symptoms overlap with those of other neurological diseases. Ventriculomegaly is not specific to NPH as well. The lack of knowledge on the initial stages in its development and throughout its progression further deters early diagnosis. Thus, we are in dire need for an appropriate animal model for researches into a more thorough understanding of its development and pathophysiology so that we can enhance the diagnosis and therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of NPH following treatment. With this, we review the few currently available experimental rodent NPH models for these animals are smaller in sizes, easier in maintenance, and having a rapid life cycle. Among these, a parietal convexity subarachnoid space kaolin injection adult rat model appears promising as it shows a slow onset of ventriculomegaly in association with cognitive and motor disabilities resembling the elderly NPH in humans.

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