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The clinical application of intravesical botulinum toxin A injection in patients with overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis

 Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Hann-Chorng Kuo,
Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 707, Section 3, Chung-Yang Road, Hualien
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_313_21

Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) has been widely used in several urological functional disorders including neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), overactive bladder (OAB), lower urinary tract dysfunction, and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Chronic inflammation is found in a large proportion of patients with OAB and IC/BPS. The chronic inflammation activates sensory afferents which resulting in central sensitization and bladder storage symptoms. Because BoNT-A can inhibit the sensory peptides released from the vesicles in sensory nerve terminals, the inflammation can be reduced and symptom subsided. Previous studies have demonstrated that the quality of life improved after BoNT-A injections, both in neurogenic and non-NDO. Although the use of BoNT-A in treatment of IC/BPS has not been approved by FDA, intravesical BoNT-A injection has been included in the AUA guideline as the fourth line therapy. Generally, intravesical injections of BoNT-A are well tolerated, though transient hematuria and urinary tract infection can occur after the procedure. In order to prevent these adverse events, experimental trials have been conducted to test if BoNT-A can be delivered into the bladder wall without intravesical injection under anesthesia such as using liposomes encapsulated BoNT-A or application of low energy shock wave on the bladder to facilitate BoNT-A penetrating across the urothelium and treat OAB or IC/BPS. This article reviews current clinical and basic researches of BoNT-A on OAB and IC/BPS.

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