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Clinico-hematological profile of pancytopenic adult patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital

1 Department of Medicine, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India
2 Department of Pathology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Sumit Pal Singh Chawla,
Department of Medicine, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Sadiq Road, Faridkot - 151 203, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_17_21

Objective: The causes of pancytopenia vary in different populations depending on age, gender, nutrition, geographic location, standard of living, and exposure to certain infections and drugs. As the severity of pancytopenia and its underlying etiology determine the management and prognosis, identifying the correct etiology in a given case is crucial and helps in implementing timely and appropriate treatment. The objectives of this study were to study the clinical profile and hematological parameters of pancytopenic adults and to identify different etiologies of pancytopenia. This observational study was conducted in the Medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 adult patients aged 18–65 years presenting with pancytopenia. All the participants were subjected to detailed clinical examination and relevant investigations including bone marrow (BM) examination. Categorical variables were presented in number and percentage (%). Qualitative variables were correlated using the Chi-square test. A P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A female preponderance was observed, and the majority of patients were aged between 18 and 40 years. The most common clinical features were generalized weakness, fever, and pallor. Seventy-four percent of patients were vegetarians; 58% had vitamin B12 deficiency, 25% had folic acid deficiency and 19% had a deficiency of both. The most common cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (MA) (37%), followed by dimorphic anemia (DA) (26%), aplastic anemia (AA) (20%), and hematological malignancies (11%). Conclusion: MA, DA, and AA are the most prevalent etiologies of pancytopenia. BM examination is of utmost importance in the definitive diagnosis of pancytopenia and is useful in initiating timely treatment as a significant number of causes of pancytopenia are potentially curable.

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